When working with MySQL, you may occasionally encounter the error message ERROR 1130 (HY000): Host ‘hostname’ is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server. This is a standard security feature of MySQL to prevent unauthorized access. Essentially, the server hasn’t been configured to accept connections from the host in question.
This article delves into the common causes of this error and offers a step-by-step approach to resolve it.
- Connection Restrictions: MySQL is configured by default to only allow connections from the localhost (127.0.0.1).
- User Privileges: A user might not have the proper permissions to connect from a specific host or any host.
- Firewall Restrictions: Firewalls might block the necessary ports (usually port 3306 for MySQL).
- Incorrect bind-address: The my.cnf or my.ini file has a bind-address directive that’s set to an IP other than the one you are connecting from.
Steps to Resolve the Error:
1. Connect to the MySQL Server
Firstly, you’ll need to connect to the MySQL server locally or using a method that doesn’t throw this error.
mysql -u root -p
You’ll be prompted to enter the root password.
2. Grant Access to Your IP Address
If you want to allow a specific IP address to connect:
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'username'@'your_ip_address' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
If you want to allow any IP to connect (less secure):
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'username'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
Replace ‘username’, ‘your_ip_address’, and ‘password’ with appropriate values.
After granting privileges, always remember to run:
3. Check the Bind-Address
Locate the mysqld.cnf (Linux/Unix) or my.ini (Windows) file. This file is usually in /etc/mysql/ on Linux.
Search for the bind-address directive. If it’s set to 127.0.0.1, it means MySQL will only accept connections from localhost. Change it to:
bind-address = 0.0.0.0
This allows MySQL to accept connections from any IP. Make sure this configuration change is in line with your security policies.
After making the change, restart the MySQL server. On Linux:
sudo systemctl restart mysql
4. Check Your Firewall
If a firewall is active on the machine where MySQL is running, it might block external connections. Ensure that port 3306 (or the port MySQL is configured to run on) is open for connections.
On Linux with ufw:
sudo ufw allow 3306/tcp
sudo ufw reload
5. Test the Connection
From the remote machine, try connecting again:
mysql -u username -p -h mysql_server_ip
Replace ‘username’ and ‘mysql_server_ip’ with appropriate values.
ERROR 1130 (HY000): Host ‘hostname’ is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server is a security feature of MySQL. By following the above steps, you can ensure that your desired host can connect. However, always be cautious when granting privileges or making configuration changes. Ensure that you are not unintentionally exposing your database to potential threats. Always prioritize security, especially when working with databases containing sensitive data.