An operating system is an interface between user and the computer hardware. A number of software applications run on operating system to manage the hardware resources on a computer.
The Linux system basically works on 4 layers. See the below diagram, shows the layers of of the Linux system architecture.
- Hardware − Hardware consists of all physical devices attached to the System. For example: Hard disk drive, RAM, Motherboard, CPU etc.
- Kernel − Kernel is the core component for any (Linux) operating system which directly interacts with the hardware.
- Shell − Shell is the interface which takes input from Users and sends instructions to the Kernel, Also takes the output from Kernel and send the result back to output shell.
- Applications − These are the utility programs which runs on Shell. This can be any application like Your web browser, media player, text editor etc.