The world of mathematics is filled with unique numbers that have distinct properties. Among these is the subset of numbers known as prime numbers, which have fascinated mathematicians for millennia. Their simplistic definition conceals their profound influence in various branches of mathematics and practical applications such as cryptography and computer science.

## What is a Prime Number?

A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be written as a product of two smaller natural numbers. In simpler terms, a prime number has only two distinct positive divisors: 1 and itself.

For example, consider the number 2. The only way to express 2 as a product of natural numbers is as 1*2. No other pair of natural numbers multiplies together to yield 2. Therefore, 2 is a prime number.

On the other hand, consider the number 4. We can express 4 as a product of 1 and 4 (14), but we can also express it as 22. Therefore, 4 has more than two distinct divisors (1, 2, and 4), which disqualifies it from being a prime number.

## Examples of Prime Numbers

Here are some examples of prime numbers available between 1-100:

It’s noteworthy that 2 is the only even prime number. Every other even number can be divided by 2, hence having at least three distinct divisors: 1, 2, and the number itself. Thus, they are not prime.

## Prime Number Properties

Prime numbers possess several interesting properties, including:

**Infinite Quantity**: Prime numbers are infinite. This statement was proven by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid over two thousand years ago. No matter how large a prime number you have, there is always a larger prime number.**Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic**: This theorem states that every integer greater than 1 either is a prime number or can be represented as a product of prime numbers in a unique way (up to the order of the factors). This underscores the fundamental nature of prime numbers in number theory.**Prime Number Theorem**: This theorem provides a rough approximation of how primes are distributed among the positive integers. It states that the probability of a randomly chosen number ‘n’ being prime is roughly 1/log(n), where the logarithm is to the base e (natural logarithm).

## Applications of Prime Numbers

Prime numbers have numerous applications, especially in computer science and cryptography.

**Cryptography**: Prime numbers are vital to public key cryptography algorithms, such as RSA. These algorithms use the fact that finding two large primes and multiplying them is computationally straightforward, but the reverse process — factoring a large number into its prime components — is computationally difficult with today’s technology, making the encryption hard to break.**Hashing Algorithms**: In computer science, prime numbers are used in various data structures such as hash tables to reduce the likelihood of**‘collision’**(two keys being hashed to the same value).

In conclusion, prime numbers, while simple in definition, have deep mathematical significance and numerous practical applications. Their properties continue to intrigue mathematicians, and their uses are integral to our modern digital world. Understanding prime numbers is a foundational step in the study of number theory and various mathematical disciplines.